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HyperTENSION : A Chronic Disease


Hypertension is also known as high blood pressure. It is one of the root causes of coronary illnesses, stroke and death. Around 85 million individuals in the United States have hypertension. Hypertension and coronary illness are worldwide health concerns.

American Heart Association (AHA) issued guidelines in November 2017 according to which hypertension is blood pressure higher than 130/80 mm Hg.


  • Hypertension that is caused by unknown cause is called essential or primary hypertension. This type accounts for 95% of the hypertension cases.

Essential hypertension can come about because of different elements, including blood plasma volume and circulation of the hormones that control of blood volume and weight. It is additionally impacted by natural elements, for example, stress and absence of activity.

  • If hypertension is caused by an identifiable primary cause, it is known as secondary hypertension. Secondary hypertension has particular causes and is a complication of another issue. This type accounts for only 5% hypertension cases.

It can be caused by:

  • Diabetes
  • Pheochromocytoma, a tumor of an adrenal gland
  • Kidney disease
  • Cushing syndrome, in which there is over secretion of glucocorticoids
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Hyperparathyroidism, which influences calcium and phosphorous levels
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a disorder of the adrenal organs that cause excessive secretion of mineralocorticoid hormones
  • Obesity
  • Pregnancy
  • Sleep apnea
  • CKD, it is the common secondary cause of hypertension

Treating the basic condition will control the blood pressure.


Risk factors:

Various risk factors include:

  • Age: Hypertension is more typical in individuals above 60 years. This is because with increasing age the blood vessels become stiff and narrow due to plaque deposit.
  • Ethnicity: Some ethnic groups are more inclined to hypertension.
  • Body weight: Obesity is a key risk factor.
  • Alcohol and tobacco: Consuming alcohol and smoking on regular basis lead to hypertension.
  • Sex: The lifetime hazard is the same for guys and females, yet men are more inclined to hypertension at a younger age. The predominance is higher in older women.
  • Existing health conditions: Cardiovascular illness, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and chronic kidney disease can prompt hypertension, particularly as individuals get aged.

Other contributing elements include:

  • Lack of physical activity
  • Consumption of lots of salt
  • Low potassium in the eating regimen
  • Consumption of fatty foods
  • Certain medicines
  • A family history of hypertension
  • Poor management of stress



Blood pressure is measured by sphygmomanometer or BP monitor.

Having hypertension for a brief span can be an ordinary reaction to numerous circumstances. Intense stress and exercise, for instance, can cause a transient elevation in BP.

Thus, diagnosis of hypertension typically needs several readings.

The AHA 2017 guidelines define the following ranges of blood pressure:

Systolic (mmHg) Diastolic (mmHg)
Normal blood pressure Less than 120 Less than 80
Elevated Between 120 and 129 Less than 80
Stage 1 hypertension Between 130 and 139 Between 80 and 89
Stage 2 hypertension At least 140 At least 90
Hypertensive crisis Over 180 Over 120


If the readings are consistent with hypertensive crisis, hold up 2 or 3 minutes and afterward take the reading again.

If reading remains same or higher, this signifies a medical emergency.


A man with hypertension may not feel any symptoms, and it is frequently called the “silent killer” so routinely checking your BP is crucial.  While undetected, it can damage the various organs, for example, the kidneys.

Hypertension causes sweating, sleeping issues, flushing, and anxiety. However, it is often asymptomatic.

A person may have headaches and nosebleeds if BP reaches limits of hypertensive crisis.


Hypertension raises the danger of various medical issues, including a heart attack.

Atherosclerosis is a long-term complication where the deposition of plaque brings about the narrowing of vessels. This aggravates hypertension, as the heart must draw harder to convey blood to the body.

Hypertension-related atherosclerosis can prompt:

  • Cardiac failure and heart attack
  • An aneurysm, which can burst and cause severing bleeding sometimes leading to death.
  • Stroke
  • Kidney failure
  • Hypertensive retinopathies in the eye, which can prompt visual impairment
  • Amputation


Customary health checks are the ideal approach to maintain BP.

Modification of lifestyle is the first-line treatment for hypertension.

  • Physical exercise

Specialists suggest that patients with hypertension participate in 30 minutes of dynamic exercise. This can incorporate walking, running, cycling, or swimming on 5 to 7 days of the week.

  • Stress reduction

Maintaining a strategic distance from stress, or careful management of it can help with BP control.

Utilizing liquor, medications, smoking, and unhealthy diet to adapt to pressure will add to hypertensive issues. These ought to stay away from.

  • Drugs

Individuals with BP higher than 130/80 require medications.

Medications are normally begun each one in turn at a low dose.

Eventually, 2 or more drugs can be given in combination to control BP.

A range of antihypertensive agents include:

  • Diuretics, including thiazides, chlorthalidone, and indapamide
  • Beta-blockers and alpha-blockers
  • Central agonists
  • Calcium-channel blockers
  • Vasodilators
  • Peripheral adrenergic inhibitor
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
  • Angiotensin receptor blockers

The decision of medication relies on the individual and some other conditions they may have.



Hypertension can be overseen through lifestyle and dietary decisions, for example, exercise, avoidance of alcohol, tobacco, and high sodium diet.

Low Salt Intake:

Average daily intake is between 9 to 12 grams in many nations around the globe.

The WHO suggests intake less than 5 g daily, to reduce the risk of hypertension and related medical issues.

This initiative can benefit individuals both with and without hypertension.

Avoidance of Excessive Alcohol Consumption:

Excessive consumption can lead to high blood pressure and increased incidence of stroke.

Not more than two beverages a day for men and one for females is recommended by The American Heart Association (AHA).

A healthcare professional can help individuals who think that it’s hard to curtail.

More fruits and vegetables and less fat intake:

Hypertensive patients are encouraged to eat less saturated fat and reduce total fat intake.

Instead, they are suggested to have:

  • Whole-grain, high-fiber items
  • Fruits and vegetables
  • Beans, pulses, and nuts
  • Omega-3-rich fish twice per week
  • Vegetable oils, for instance, olive oil
  • Low-fat dairy items


It is important to stop intake of saturated fats, for example, animal fat.

Management of body weight

Obesity has a close relation with hypertension and weight control has a positive impact on control of blood pressure. A balanced diet with a calorie intake that matches the person’s size, gender, and activity level will help.

The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet:

The U.S. National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) suggest the DASH diet for individuals with hypertension. It is intended to enable hypertensive patients bring down their BP.

It is an adaptable and adjusted eating design in view of research studies supported by the Institute, which says that the diet

Controls BP

Controls level of fats in bloodstream

Reduces the incidence of cardiovascular issues

To achieve these aims, NHLBI has written a cookbook “Keep the Beat Recipes”.

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