Often a blood clot in coronary arteries result in blockage of blood supply to heart muscles leading to a medical emergency called heart attack.
Different terms utilized for a heart attack incorporate myocardial infarction and coronary thrombosis. An infarction is a localized necrosis in which a tissue dies due to reduced blood supply.
Risk Factors and Causes:
- Age: Heart attacks are more probable when a man is more than 45, and when a woman is more than 55.
- Angina: Absence of oxygen or blood supply to the heart causes chest pain.
- High cholesterol levels: These can build the possibility of thrombosis.
- Diabetes: This can build heart attack chance.
- Diet: For instance, eating large amounts of saturated fats is a risk factor.
- Genetics: Positive family history places a person at risk of heart attack.
- Heart surgery: This can prompt a heart attack later on.
- Hypertension: Unnecessary stress is put on heart by the high blood pressure.
- Obesity: Being too overweight is related to increased atherosclerosis and hence heart attack.
- Previous heart attack.
- Smoking: Smokers are at considerably higher risk than non-smokers.
- HIV: People who have HIV infection are at 50 percent higher risk.
- Work Load: Those who are laborers or have stressful occupations can confront a higher heart attack chance.
Sedentary lifestyle is a risk factor for heart attack, and the physical activity helps prevent heart issues.
Often, when it happens, a heart assault is caused by a blend of variables, as opposed to a solitary one.
Heart attack has clear symptoms that should be given immediate attention.
A squeezing chest pain, tightness and pressure in the thoracic region or a dull pain in the chest that radiates towards the neck, jaw and left shoulder suggests that one is having heart attack.
Other associated clinical features are given as follow:
- Dyspnea (Shortness of breath)
- squeezing chest pain
- excessive sweating and feeling clammy
Changing position has no effect on alleviation of pain. The pain is typically constant.
There are four signs of an attack recorded by the American Heart Association (AHA). These include:
- Discomfort, squeezing or soreness in the chest that keeps going a few minutes or resolves and then recurs
- Dull pain in the arms, neck, back, stomach, or jaw
- Sudden dyspnea
When these symptoms are felt, a person should reach out emergency services.
It is diagnosed after conducting following tests:
- ECG or electrocardiograph
- cardiac enzyme tests
- chest X-ray
Complications are of two types, i-e immediate and late complications.
- Arrhythmias: the heart pulsates unpredictably, either too quick or too gradually.
- Cardiogenic shock: blood pressure drops all of a sudden and the heart is not able to supply the other bodily organs.
- Hypoxemia: blood oxygen concentration becomes too low.
- Pulmonary edema: liquid collects in the lungs.
- Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): the profound veins of the legs and pelvis are clogged by blood clots that interfere with the flow of blood in veins.
- Myocardial rupture: the wall of heart is damaged that increases risk of rupture.
- Ventricular aneurysm: ventricle is a heart chamber that bulges out in aneurysm.
- Aneurysm: scar develops on the damaged heart tissue prompting thrombosis, hypotension, and arrhythmias.
- Angina: insufficient oxygen supply to heart causes chest pain.
- Congestive heart failure: the heart can just pulsate weakly, leaving a man feeling depleted and short of breath.
- Edema: fluid aggregates in the ankles and legs, making them swell.
- Erectile dysfunction: it is by and large caused by a vascular issue. However, depression can also be the reason.
- Loss of libido: lost sexual drive can happen, particularly in men.
- Pericarditis: there is chest pain due to inflammation of the lining of heart.
Management during heart attack:
Occasionally a person stops breathing during heart attack. For this situation, cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, or CPR, ought to be begun quickly. This procedure includes:
- Manual chest compression
Treatment following Heart Attack:
The vast majority will require a few sorts of prescriptions or medications after a heart attack. The point of these measures is to avoid future heart attacks. They may include:
- Aspirin and different antiplatelet
- Beta blockers
- ACE (angiotensin converting enzymes) inhibitors
- CABG or coronary artery bypass graft
Healthy lifestyle is the key to prevent heart issues. Measures for healthy lifestyle include:
- No smoking
- balance diet and healthy eating habits
- Adequate sleep at night
- keeping diabetes under control
- avoid drinking alcohol
- maintaining blood cholesterol at ideal levels
- keeping blood pressure within limits
- maintaining an ideal body weight
- avoiding stress
- learning how to oversee stress